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Mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the major analytical techniques which ionizes chemical species and sorts out based on their mass-to-charge ratio of the ions. In general, it can be expressed as, a mass spectrum which measures the masses within a sample. This spectrometry is used in many other different fields which are applied to pure samples along with complex mixtures. Some of the new approaches in Mass Spectrometry are:
Ultraviolet Spectroscopy is the measurement of the decrease in the beam of light after passing through a sample or after reflection from a sample surface. Absorption measurements can be at a single wavelength or over an extended spectral range.
Time-resolved spectroscopy is the study of dynamic processes in materials or chemical compounds by means of spectroscopic techniques. Most often, processes are studied after the illumination of a material occurs, but in principle, the technique can be applied to any process that leads to a change in properties of a material.
There are different ways in which X-rays can be employed. Absorption of X-rays is about absorbing material in other regions of the spectrum. Fluorescence emission of X-rays enables to identify and measure heavy elements in any medium. Diffraction of X-rays enables to analyse the specificity and accuracy of crystalline materials with a high degree.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a spectroscopy technique which is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by nuclei of the atoms. Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for elucidating the number of hydrogen or proton in the compound. It is used to study a wide variety of nuclei.
EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) is a spectroscopic technique that detects species that have unpaired electrons. It is also called as ESR (Electron Spin Resonance). A large number of materials have unpaired electrons which include free radicals, many transition metal ions, and defects. Free electrons are often short-lived, but still play vital roles in many processes such as photosynthesis, oxidation, catalysis, and polymerization reactions. As a result EPR crosses several disciplines like chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, medical science and many more.
Terahertz spectroscopy is a rapidly evolving field with interesting applications in medical imaging, security, scientific imaging (chemistry, biochemistry and astronomy), communications, and manufacturing. Many molecules, especially biomolecules, provide fingerprint spectroscopic lines in the Terahertz region
Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, different method for identifying and separating the components, or solutes, of a mixture on the basis of the relative amounts of each solute distributed between a moving fluid streams, called the mobile phase, and a contiguous stationary phase. Liquid-chromatography is one of the mostly employed and useful techniques in pharmaceutical industry for sample preparation. Another one is electrophoretic separation technique designed for rapid and selective sample analysis. Immuno affinity chromatography (IAC) is a different method of Liquid Chromatography in which the stationary phase consists of an antibody or it might include antibody-related reagent. This technique involves a unique sub type of affinity chromatography, in which a biologically related binding agent is taken for the selective separation or analysis of a target compound. Capillary electrophoresis is other method which identifies and distributes ions depending on their electrophoretic mobility with the use of an applied voltage. Compact mass spectrometer is widely used in the food safety, water purity and clinical diagnosis. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is an instrumental technique, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS), by which complex mixtures of chemicals may be separated, identfied and quantified.
Luminescence spectroscopy is a technique which studies the of chemical systems. Luminescence is the emission of light by a substance. It occurs when an electron returns to the electronic ground state from an excited state and loses its excess energy as a photon. Luminescence spectroscopy is a collective name given to three related spectroscopic techniques.
HPLC/UHPLC chromatography is a commonly used separation mode in Reversed phase. Its retention of compounds possessing hydrophobic and organic functionality are provided dynamically. Combination of both hydrophobic and van der Waals type interactions between all the target compounds including both the stationary and mobile phases enables by reversed phase retention of these compounds.
Nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has become an indispensable tool in the field of proteomics now-a-days. The advantages are grabbed with the sensitivity of nanotechnology over conventional LC-MS that allow the analysis of various peptide mixtures in limited situations. This approach gives a strong cation-exchange, sample enrichment, reversed-phase chromatography and nanospray ion trap mass spectroscopy with data dependent tandem mass spectrometry spectra acquisition. Nanocolumn liquid chromatography and largely synonymous capillary liquid chromatography (capillary LC) are the most recent results of this process where miniaturization of column dimensions and sorbent particle size play crucial role along with the advances in mass spectrometry that has really brought a breakthrough. Configuration of Nano LC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has become a essential tool in bioanalytical chemistry that basically indulges in proteomics. This particular session includes the brief account on pharmaceutical and biomedical research, Nano-proteomic analysis and Nano-proteomic analysis.
Analytical testing capabilities for these disciplines of Veterinary drug analysis have evolved significantly. So the scope of Analytical Techniques is playing a major role in the current Veterinary Medicine analysis. It majorly utilizes Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to provide an array of toxicology and drug tests. The instrumentation majorly involved in drug testing are Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), Tandem Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry (HRAMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Atomic Absorption (AA).
Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging procedure that uses special x-ray equipment to create detailed pictures, or scans, of areas inside the body. It is also called computerized tomography and computerized axial tomography (CAT).
Experimentation Tools in Mass Spectrometry consists of Diagnostic and Cancer Biomarker Discovery Tool, Potential of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool, the age of the proteome in proteomics. Mass spectrometric analysis of biological samples has increasingly entailed direct analysis of complex protein mixtures, often with the objective of detailed characterization of the various components. This trend toward ever greater sample complexity has been enabled and in turn driven by the rapid development of powerful mass spectrometric tools. A general characteristic of recent mass spectrometers is that most are composed of a sequence of multiple mass analysers with different strengths and properties, resulting in tandem instruments that possess capabilities unattainable by the individual components can combine high mass accuracy with high-speed measurement, greatly facilitating the analysis of complex mixtures. This option is advantageous when speed and accuracy are crucial for the success of analysis, as it is, for example, when the mass spectrometer is coupled on-line to an HPLC system
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is a mature surface analysis technique with a broad range of applications in Materials Science. In this article the SIMS process is described, the fundamental SIMS equations are derived, and the main terminology is explained. The issue of quantification is addressed. The various modes of SIMS analysis including static SIMS, imaging SIMS, depth profiling SIMS and three-dimensional (3D) SIMS are discussed as are specialized analysis strategies such as the imaging of shallow and cross-sections and reverse side analysis.
Tandem mass spectrometry involves multiple steps of mass selection or analysis, usually separated by some form of fragmentation. It is simply a matter of reading Mass Spectrometry value from the spectrum. A tandem mass spectrometer is one capable of multiple rounds of understanding mass spectrometry. For example, one mass analyzer can isolate one peptide from many entering a mass spectrometer. A second mass analyzer then stabilizes the peptide ions while they collide with a gas, causing them to fragment by collision-induced dissociation (CID). A third mass analyzer then catalogues the fragments produced from the peptides. Tandem MS can also be done in a single mass analyzer over time as in a quadrupole ion trap. There are various methods for fragmenting molecules for tandem MS, including collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron capture dissociation (ECD), infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD).
It is noticed that LC/MS system during the past 2 years has been used to quantify natural small molecules biologically.Numerous developments have been made in LCMS analysis such as phospholipids and drugs with respect to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies interfering with the metabolism of sphingolipids. Simultaneous measurements of drugs with the levels of natural metabolites are designed to modify. The processes incorporated inLC-MS method development for the pharmacological studies includes three anti-cancer drugs (i.e., methoxyamine, fludarabine, and 6-benzylthioinosine). Some others being specific are tetra-enzyme cocktail utilizing for release of DNA adducts All these methods are applied to study the drug effect and drug mechanism through other integrated prospects like therapeutics and detection & determination of impurities
Analytical chemistry is concerned with providing qualitative and quantitative information about the chemical and structural composition of a sample of matter. A huge variety of samples, from high concentrations of elements in alloy steels to part-per-billion levels of drugs in biological tissue, are handled by the analyst. The field is founded on the conversion of a measured physical property of the species being examined to a usable signal. It is generally divided into two categories, classical and instrumental, on the basis of its historical development. The overall strategy is to prepare a sample correctly, choose a particular method of analysis, and report the results in a meaningful format, which may include a statistical evaluation.
The use of LCMS has become a paramount in two dimensional hyphenated technology to be useful in a wide assortment of analytical and bioanalytical techniques of nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and etcetera and in categorizing the field of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics. Current trends are may be gripped of mass analyzers, ionization protocols, fast LC–MS, LC–MALDI-MS, ion mobility spectrometry used in LC–MS, quantitation issues specific to MS and emerging mass spectrometric approaches which are complementary base in LC–MS are also discussed to focus on the recent innovations in LC–MS especially from the last decade and then to enlist mass spectrometers offered currently by main manufacturers for LC–MS and MALDI-MS configurations together with the technical specifications. The forthcoming supplements in LC-MS could be emphasized on Bioanalysis, Aspects in Clinical Chemistry, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Compounds
Infrared Spectroscopy is the study of infrared light interacting with a molecule. This can be analysed by measuring absorption, emission and reflection. The technique is applied in organic and inorganic chemistry. It is used by chemists to determine functional groups in molecules. Infrared Spectroscopy measures the vibrations of atoms and based on this it is possible to define the functional group.
It is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques used to provide information on molecular vibrations and crystal structures. This technique uses a laser light source to irradiate a sample, and generates an infinitesimal amount of Raman scattered light, which is detected as a Raman spectrum. The characteristic fingerprinting pattern in a Raman spectrum makes it possible to identify substances including polymorphs and evaluate local crystallinity, orientation and stress.
The process of separation is integral unit operation in most of the Modern Pharmaceutical Techniques, chemical and other process plants. Among the separation processes, some are standard and conventional processes, like, distillation Process, absorption process, adsorption process, etc. These processes are quite common and the relevant technologies are well developed and well-studied. On the other hand, newer separation processes like membrane based techniques, supercritical fluid extraction, chromatographic separation, etc., are gaining importance in modern days plants as novel separation processes.